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Roads continue to represent one of the main Brazilian logistical and tourist means of transport. And they need constant maintenance, modernization and safety improvements, plus the construction of many, many more kilometers to meet the country's growing needs. Since 2007, some 6,100 km of highways were built or duplicated in Brazil. Just through the PAC 2, some 3,000 km were completed. Anther 7,200 km are currently being built, with 2,600 km of duplication and adjustments and 4,600 km of construction and paving.
Also part of the PAC are Restoration and Road Maintenance Contracts (Crema), a type of wider and long-term maintenance program, ensuring higher highway quality. Crema represents 69% of the 49,725 km contracted.
Country gains safer highways:
At the inauguration of the North Rail Network Expansion Project in Rondonópolis (MT) in September 2013, President Dilma noted Brazil was behind in railroad logistics and country coverage compared to many countries in the world that had made heavy investments in the sector since the end of the 18th or early 19th centuries.
Dilma recalled that only now, in the 21st century, "we are trying to catch up to remedy the immense fragility of the logistics structure of Brazil, which is a continental sized country, food exporter, with a large agribusiness, a minerals power and with a huge intercommunication capability with diversified markets that need internal links, which are without railroad infrastructure."
At the beginning of his first term, President Lula said he would resume investments in Brazilian logistics and the national railway system. It was necessary to plan once again, to rebuild another sector that had been abandoned and for which there were no prospects. As of 2007, with the PAC projects began to move off the drawing boards, more speedily and with guaranteed budgets.
Since the beginning of the PAC program, Brazil has added 1,900 km of railway track. Of this total, just the PAC alone contributed with 1,053 km completed. Among the highlights are the completion of 410 km of the North-South railway, the Palmas (TO) to Anápolis (GO) stretch; 96 km of the Transnordestina, involving the Missão Velha-Salgueiro (PE) stretch; and 84 km for Ferronorte, the stretch between Rondonópolis and Alto Araguaia (MT). Other 2,545 km are under construction.
In the Lula government, the North-South railway's northern stretch was completed, linking Açailândia (MA) and Palmas (TO), with investments totaling R$ 3.41 billion. In the PAC 2, introduced by Dilma, the projects will conclude the southern section, which connects Palmas (TO) and Estrela d'Oeste (SP). The Tocantins to Anápolis (GO) stretch of 854.8 km is complete, and some 682 km are almost concluded for the Ouro Verde (GO) to Estrela d'Oeste (SP) stretch.
In Brazilian ports, another vital sector for logistical success and leverage of the Brazilian economy, mainly because of exports, PAC investments are aimed at recovery projects: widening, deepening, dredging and construction of passenger terminals.
By first half of 2014, 22 projects were completed, including dredging to deepen the waterway access the Port of Vitória (ES), strengthening the docking pier Alamoa at the Port of Santos (SP), and the passenger terminal meeting the demand during the 2014 World Cup in the cities of Salvador (BA), Fortaleza (CE) and Natal (RN).
When a ship arrives at a Brazilian port, its operation generates no less than 935 pieces of information that will be used by 26 agencies. To increase the efficiency of port operations, the Paperless Port was established, a project to reduce red tape that eliminates the delivery of printed documents by shipping agencies to public agencies involved in the national port administration process. Through the Paperless Port program, the length of stay of vessels is reduced by 25%. The program, in operation since May 2013, has benefited 35 ports around the country.
In 2003, 33 million passengers picked up flights at the nation's airports. In December 2013, with the expansion of the middle class, that number rose to 133 million passengers. To meet this growing demand with quality, the PAC program concluded 24 projects across the country, expanding the capacity of Brazilian airports by more than 15 million passengers a year. Another 18 airports were under construction in early 2014.
In addition to the projects backed by federal government investment, six airport concession auctions were held: in 2011, for São Gonçalo do Amarante (RN); in 2012, the Guarulhos (SP), Campinas (SP) and Brasilia (DF) airports; and in 2013, the Confins (MG) and Galeão (RJ) airports. In all, the concessions will result in investments of R$ 26 billion in these airports.
In the concession format, which is very different from privatization, the private sector owns 51% of the airport's shares, with 49% belong to Infraero. In addition, the government company continues to receive dividends from its stock ownership and resources from the National Civil Aviation Fund (FNAC), exclusively focused on investments in the other airports it manages. At the end of the concession period, airports will return to state control.
The installed capacity of our airports grew 191% between 2002 and 2013, from 97.9 million to 285 million passengers per year.
Learn here about the difference between a concession and privatization.
Another strategic PAC activity is the delivery of equipment to build local roads. Backhoes, motor-graders and trucks are donated to municipalities of up to 50,000 inhabitants for maintenance of roads linking rural areas to urban centers, necessary for the flow of production — especially family farming, largely responsible for supplying produce to Brazilian tables.
By May 2014, 5,071 backhoes, 5,060 graders and 5,060 dump trucks were delivered.